Publications using PNW-PSP data


Citations preceded by * can be be downloaded from the web site for the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest


2010 to present

Acker, S.A., J.A. Kertis and R.J. Pabst. 2017. Tree regeneration, understory development, and biomass dynamics following wildfire in a mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) forest. Forest Ecology and Management 384: 72-82.

Acker, S.A., J. Kertis, H. Bruner, K. O'Connell and J. Sexton. 2013. Dynamics of coarse woody debris following wildfire in a mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) forest. Forest Ecology and Management 302: 231-239.

Bell, D.M., T.A. Spies and R.J. Pabst. 2017.  Historical harvests reduce neighboring old-growth basal area across a forest landscape. Ecological Applications 27(5): 1666-1676. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eap.1560

Bell, D.M., R.J. Pabst, D.C. Shaw. 2020. Tree growth declines and mortality associated with a parasitic plant increase during warm and dry climatic
conditions in a temperate coniferous forest ecosystem. Global Change Biology 26: 1714-1724. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14834

Dornelas, M. et al. 2018. BioTIME: A database of biodiversity time series for the Anthropocene. Global Ecology and Biogeography 27: 760-786. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/geb.12729

Chang, C.C., C.B. Halpern, J.A. Antos, M.L. Avolio, A. Biswas, J.E. Cook, R. del Moral, D.G. Fischer, A. Holz, R.J. Pabst, M.E. Swanson and D.B. Zobel. 2018. Testing conceptual models of early plant succession across a disturbance gradient. Journal of Ecology 107(2): 517-530.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13120

Cook, J.E. and C.B.Halpern. 2018. Vegetation changes in blown-down and scorched forests 10-26 years after the eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, USA. Plant Ecology. 219: 957-972.  https://doi:10.1007/s11258-018-0849-8

*Dovciak, M., and C.B. Halpern. 2010. Diversity-stability relationships in forest herb populations during four decades of community assembly. Ecology Letters 13: 1300-1309.

Ettinger, A.K., K.R. Ford and J. Hille Ris Lambers. 2011. Climate determines upper, but not lower, range limits in Pacific Northwestern conifers. Ecology 92(6): 1323-1331.

Fischer, D.G., J.A. Antos, W.G. Grandy, and D.B. Zobel. 2016. A little disturbance goes a long way: 33-year understory successional responses to a thin tephra deposit. Forest Ecology and Management 382: 236-243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.10.018

Ford, K.R., I.K. Breckheimer, J.F. Franklin, J.A. Freund, S.J. Kroiss, A.J. Larson, E.J. Theobald and J. Hille Ris Lambers. 2017. Competition alters tree growth responses to climate at individual and stand scales. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 47: 53–62.

*Freund, J.A., J.F. Franklin, A.J. Larson, and J.A. Lutz. 2014. Multi-decadal establishment for single-cohort Douglas-fir forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 44(9): 1068-1078. 

Freund, J.A., J.F. Franklin and J.A. Lutz. 2015. Structure of early old-growth Douglas-fir forests in the Pacific Northwest. Forest Ecology and Management 335: 11-25.

Germain, S.J. and J.A. Lutz. 2020. Climate extremes may be more important than climate means when predicting species range shifts. Climatic Change 163: 579–598. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-020-02868-2

*Halpern, C. B., and J. A. Lutz. 2013. Canopy closure exerts weak controls on understory dynamics: A 30-year study of overstory-understory interactions. Ecological Monographs 83: 221-237.

*Harmon, M.E. and R.J. Pabst. 2015. Testing hypotheses of forest succession using long-term data: 100 years of observations in the Oregon Cascades. Journal of Vegetation Science 26(4): 722–732.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jvs.12273

*Harmon, M.E. and R.J. Pabst. 2019. The long-term effects of wind disturbance on a Sitka spruce-western hemlock forest. Forests 10: 1-19. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10020119

*Harmon, M. E., B. Fasth, C. B. Halpern, and J. A. Lutz. 2015. Uncertainty analysis: an evaluation metric for synthesis science. Ecosphere 6(4): 63 (12 p).

*Hille Ris Lambers, J., L.D.L. Anderegg, I. Breckheimer, K. Burns, A.K. Ettinger, J.F. Franklin, J.A. Freund, K.R. Ford and S. Kroiss. 2015. Implications of climate change for turnover in forest composition.  Northwest Science: 201-218.

LaManna, J.A., F.A. Jones, D.M. Bell, R.J. Pabst, D.C. Shaw. 2022. Tree species diversity increases with conspecific negative density dependence across an elevation gradient. Ecology Letters, https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.13996

*Larson, A.J., J.A. Lutz, D.C. Donato, M.E. Swanson, J. HilleRisLambers, D.G. Sprugel and J.F. Franklin. 2015. Spatial  aspects  of  tree  mortality  strongly  differ  between young  and  old-growth  forests. Ecology 96(11): 2855–2861.

Larson, A.J. and J.F. Franklin. 2010. The tree mortality regime in temperate old-growth coniferous forests: the role of physical damage. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40: 2091-2103.

O’Halloran, T.L., S.A. Acker, V.M. Joerger, J. Kertis and B.E. Law. 2014. Postfire influences of snag attrition on albedo and radiative forcing.  Geophysical Research Letters, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014GL062024

Perry, T.D. and J.A. Jones. 2017. Summer streamflow deficits from regenerating Douglas‐fir forest in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Echohydrology, https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1790

*Pham, T., J. Jones, R. Metoyer, F. Swanson and R. Pabst. 2013. Interactive visual analysis promotes exploration of long-term ecological data.  Ecosphere 4: Article 112. (on-line)

*Seidl, R., Spies, T.A., Rammer, W., Steel, E.A., Pabst, R.J. and Olsen, K. 2012. Multi-scale drivers of spatial variation in old-growth forest carbon density disentangled with Lidar and an individual-based landscape model. Ecosystems: 1-15 (online).

Shaw, D. and M. Agne. 2017. Fire and dwarf mistletoe (Viscaceae: Arceuthobium species) in western North America: contrasting Arceuthobium tsugense and Arceuthobium americanum. Botany 95: 231-246 (review paper).

Stephenson, N. L., P. J. van Mantgem, A. G. Bunn, H. Bruner, M. E. Harmon, K. B. O’Connell, D. L. Urban, and J. F. Franklin.  2011.  Causes and implications of the correlation between forest productivity and tree mortality rates.  Ecological Monographs 81: 527-555. 

*Stephenson, N. L. et al.  2014.  Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.  Nature 507(7490): 90-93.

*Woolley, T. J., M. E. Harmon, and K. B. O’Connell. 2015. Inter-annual variability and spatial coherence of Net Primary Productivity across a western Oregon Cascades landscape.  Forest Ecology and Management 335:60-70.

*Zald, H.S.J., Spies, T.A., Seidl, R., Pabst, R.J., Olsen, K.A., Steel, E.A. 2016. Complex mountain terrain and disturbance history drive variation in forest aboveground live carbon density in the western Oregon Cascades, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 366: 193-207.



*Acker, S.A., J.F. Franklin, S.E. Greene, T.B. Thomas, R. Van Pelt and K. Bible. 2006 Two decades of stability and change in old-growth forest at Mount Rainier National Park. Northwest Science 80(1): 65-72.

*Acker, S.A., S.V. Gregory, G. Lienkaemper, W.A. McKee, F.J. Swanson and S.D. Miller. 2003. Composition, complexity, and tree mortality in riparian forests in the central western Cascades of Oregon. Forest Ecology and Management. 173: 293-308.

*Acker, S. A., C.B. Halpern, M.E. Harmon, and C.T. Dyrness.  2002.  Trends in bole biomass accumulation, net primary production, and tree mortality in Pseudotsuga menziesii forests of contrasting age.  Tree Physiology 22: 213-217. 

*Acker, S.A., P.A. Harcombe, M.E. Harmon, S.E. Greene.  2000.  Biomass accumulation over the first 150 years in coastal Oregon Picea-Tsuga forest.  Journal of Vegetation Science 11: 725-738. 

*Binkley, D. 2003. Seven decades of stand development in mixed and pure stands of conifers and nitrogen-fixing red alder. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33: 2274-2279.

*Gray, A.N. 2003. Monitoring stand structure in mature coastal Douglas-fir forests: effect of plot size. Forest Ecology and Management 175:1-16. http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/5249

*Harcombe, P.A., S.E. Greene, M.G. Kramer, S.A. Acker, T.A. Spies and T. Valentine. 2004. The influence of fire and windthrow dynamics on a coastal spruce-hemlock forest in Oregon, USA, based on aerial photographs spanning 40 years. Forest Ecology and Management 194: 71–82

*Harmon, M. E., K. Bible, M. J. Ryan, D. Shaw,H. Chen, J. Klopatek, and Xia Li.  2004.  Production, respiration, and overall carbon balance in an old-growth Pseudotsuga/Tsuga forest ecosystem.  Ecosystems 7: 498-512. 

*Keyes, C.R., S.A. Acker and S.E. Greene. 2001. Overstory and shrub influences on seedling recruitment patterns in an old-growth ponderosa pine stand. Northwest Science 75(3): 204-210.

*Lutz, J. A., and C. B. Halpern. 2006. Tree mortality during early forest development: a long-term study of rates, causes, and consequences. Ecological Monographs 76:257-275.

*Pabst, R.J., Goslin, M.N., Garman, S.L., and Spies, T.A. 2008. Calibrating and testing a gap model for simulating forest management in the Oregon Coast Range. Forest Ecology and Management 256: 958–972.

*Shaw, D.C., M. Huso and H. Bruner. 2008. Basal area growth impacts of dwarf mistletoe on western hemlock in an old-growth forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38: 576-583.

*Smithwick, E. A. H., M. E. Harmon, S. M. Remillard, S. A. Acker, and J. F. Franklin.  2002.  Potential upper bounds of carbon stores in forests of the Pacific Northwest.  Ecological Applications 12:1303–1317. 

*Stephenson, N.L. and P.J. van Mantgem. 2005. Forest turnover rates follow global and regional patterns of productivity. Ecology Letters 8(5): 524-531.

*Swanson, M.E. , D.C. Shaw, and T.K. Marosi. 2006. Distribution of western hemlock dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense [Rosendahl] G.N. Jones subsp. tsugense ) in mature and old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii  [Mirb.] Franco) forests. Northwest Science 80(3): 207-217.

*van Mantgem et al. 2009. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States. Science 23 Vol. 323(5913): 521-524.

*Van Pelt, R. and J.F. Franklin. 2000. Influence of canopy structure on the understory environment in tall, old-growth, conifer forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 30: 1231-1245.

*Woolley, T. J., M. E. Harmon, and K. B. O’Connell. 2007.  Estimating annual bole biomass increment: determining a sampling and modeling methodology using uncertainty analysis. Forest Ecology and Management 253: 202-210.



*Acker, S.A., T.E. Sabin, L.M. Ganio, and W.A. McKee. 1998. Development of old-growth structure and timber volume growth trends in maturing Douglas-fir stands. Forest Ecology and Management 104: 265-280.

*Acker, S.A., W.A. McKee, M.E. Harmon, and J.F. Franklin.  1998.  Long-term research on forest dynamics in the Pacific Northwest: a network of permanent plots.  pp. 93-106 In F. Dallmeir and J. A. Comiskey editors Forest Biodiversity in North, Central, and South America: Research and Monitoring.  Parthenon Press, Pearl River, New York. 

*Acker, S. A., M.E. Harmon, T.A. Spies, and W.A. McKee.  1996.  Spatial patterns of tree mortality in an-old-growth Abies-Pseudotsuga stand.  Northwest Science 69: 184-190. 

*Busing, R.T., C.B. Halpern, and T.A. Spies. 1995. Ecology of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) in western Oregon and Washington. Conservation Biology 9: 1199-1207.

*Franklin, J.F., C.S. Bledsoe and J.T. Callahan. 1990. Contributions of the Long-Term Ecological Research program. BioScience, 40, 509-23 Frenkel, R.E. (1985). Vegetation. In Kimerling, AJ. and Jackson, P.L. (eds) Atlas of the Pacific Northwest. 7th edition, Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, OR, pp. 58-66.

Goslin, M.N. 1997. Development of two coniferous stands impacted by multiple, partial Fires in the Oregon Cascades: establishment history and the spatial patterns of colonizing tree species relative to old-growth remnant trees. Oregon State University master’s thesis. 170 pp.

*Greene, S. E., P. A. Harcombe, M. E. Harmon, and G. Spycher.  1992.  Patterns of growth, mortality, and biomass changes in a coastal Sitka spruce-western hemlock forest.  Journal of Vegetation Science 3: 697-706.

*Halpern, C.B., and T.A. Spies. 1995. Plant species diversity in natural and managed forests of the Pacific Northwest. Ecological Applications 5: 913-934.

*Halpern, C.B., J.F. Franklin, and A. McKee. 1992. Changes in plant species diversity after harvest of Douglas-fir forests. The Northwest Environmental Journal 8: 205-207.

*Halpern, C.B., and J.F. Franklin. 1990. Physiognomic development of Pseudotsuga forests in relation to initial structure and disturbance intensity. Journal of Vegetation Science 1: 475-482.

*Halpern, C.B., P.M. Frenzen, J.E. Means and J.F. Franklin. 1990. Plant succession in areas of scorched and blown-down forest after the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington. Journal of Vegetation Science 1: 181-194.

*Harcombe, P. A., M. E. Harmon and S. E. Greene.  1990.  Changes in biomass and production over 53 years in a coastal Picea sitchensis‑Tsuga heterophylla forest approaching maturity.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20: 1602‑1610.

*Harmon, M.E. and H. Chen. 1991. Coarse woody debris dynamics in two old-growth ecosystems. BioScience 41: 604-610.

*Spies, T.A., J.F. Franklin and M. Klopsch. 1990. Canopy gaps in Douglas-fir forests of the Cascade Mountains. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20: 649-658.

*Wilson, M. V. 1991. Age structure patterns in Abies amabilis stands of the Cascade Mountains. American Midland Naturalist 125: 331-339.



Cline, S.A., A.B. Berg and H.M. Wight. 1980.  Snag characteristics and dynamics in Douglas-fir forests, western Oregon.  Journal of Wildlife Management 44(4): 773-786.

*DeBell, D.S. and J.F. Franklin. 1987. Old-growth Douglas-fir and western hemlock: a 36-year record of growth and mortality. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 2: 111- 114

*Franklin, J.F. 1989. Importance and justification of long-term studies in ecology. In Likens, G.E. (ed.) Long-term Studies in Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 1- 19.

*Franklin, J.F. and D.S. DeBell. 1988. Thirty-six years of tree population change in an old-growth Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 18: 633-639

*Franklin, J.F, W.H. Moir, M.A. Hemstrom, S.E. Greene and B.G. Smith. 1988. The Forest Communities of Mount Rainier National Park. Scientific Monograph Series No. 19. USDI National Park Service, Washington, DC.

*Franklin, J.F, H.H. Shugart and M.E. Harmon. 1987. Tree death as an ecological process. BioScience, 37, 550-5

*Franklin, J.F. 1982. Ecosystem studies in the Hoh River Drainage, Olympic National Park. In Starkey, E.E., Franklin, J.E and Matthews, 1.W. (technical coordinators) Ecological Research in National Parks of the Pacific Northwest. Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, pp. 1-8.

*Gholz, H.L., G.M. Hawk, A. Campbell, K. Cromack Jr. and A.T. Brown. 1985. Early vegetation recovery and element cycles on a clear-cut watershed in western Oregon. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 15: 400-409.

*Greene, S. and M. Klopsch. 1985. Soil and air temperatures for different habitats in Mount Rainier National Park. Res. Paper PNW-342. USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 50 pp.

*Halpern, C.B. 1988. Early successional pathways and the resistance and resilience of forest communities. Ecology 69: 1703-1715.

*Halpern, C.B. 1989. Early successional patterns of forest species: interactions of life history traits and disturbance. Ecology 70: 704-720.

*Harcombe, P.A. 1986. Stand development in a 130-year-old spruce-hemlock forest based on age structure and 50 years of mortality data. Forest Ecology and Management 14: 41-58.

*Harmon, M.E. and J.F. Franklin. 1983. Age distribution of western hemlock and its relation to Roosevelt elk populations in the South Fork Hoh River Valley, Washington. Northwest Science 57(4): 249-255.

*Kuiper, L.C. 1988. The structure of natural Douglas-fir forests in western Washington and western Oregon. Agricultural University Wageningen Papers 88(5): 1-47.

*Smith, S.H., J.E. Bell, E.R. Herman and T.  See. 1984. Growth and yield of Sitka spruce and western hemlock at Cascade Head Experimental Forest, Oregon. Research Paper PNW-325. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR.

*Sollins, P. 1982. Input and decay of coarse woody debris in coniferous stands in western Oregon and Washington. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 12: 18-28.

*Sollins, P., C.C. Grier, E.M. McCorison, K. Cromack Jr., R. Fogel, R.L. Fredriksen. 1980. The internal element cycles of an old-growth Douglas-fir ecosystem in western Oregon. Ecological Monographs 50(3): 261-285.



Berntsen, C.M. 1961. Growth and development of red alder compared with conifers in 30-year-old stands. PNW Forest and Range Experiment Station Research Paper 38. 20 pages.

*Dyrness, C.T. 1973. Early stages of plant succession following logging and burning in the western Cascades of Oregon. Ecology 54: 57-69.

*Fujimori, T., S. Kawanbe, H. Saito, C.C. Grier, and T. Shidei. 1976. Biomass and primary production in forests of three major vegetation zones of the Northwest United States. Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society 58(10): 360-373.

*Grier, C.C. 1976. Biomass, productivity, and nitrogen-phosphorus cycles in hemlock-spruce stands of the central Oregon coast. In Atkinson, W.A. and Zasoski, RJ. (eds) Western Hemlock Management, Institute of Forest Products Contribution No. 34A. College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Seattle, pp. 71-81.

*Grier, C.C. 1978. A Tsuga heterophylla-Picea sitchensis ecosystem of coastal Oregon: decomposition and nutrient balances of fallen logs. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 8: 198-206.

*Hawk, G.M., J.F. Franklin, W.A. McKee and R.B. Brown. 1978. H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest reference stand system: establishment and use history. Coniferous Forest Biome Bulletin No. 12. University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

*McArdle, R.E., W.H. Meyer and D. Bruce. 1949. The yield of Douglasfir in the Pacific Northwest. Technical Bulletin 201 (Revised), US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

Meyer, W.H. 1937. Yield of even-aged stands of Sitka spruce and western hemlock. Technical Bulletin No. 544. US Depanment of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

*Munger, T.T. 1946. Watching a Douglas-fir forest for thirty-five years. Journal of Forestry 44(10): 705-708.

Staebler, G.R. 1955. Gross yield and mortality tables for fully stocked stands of Douglas- fir. Research Paper 14. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR.

Williamson, R.L. 1963. Growth and yield records from well-stocked stands of Douglas- fir. Research Paper PNW-4. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR.

*Zobel, D.B., A. McKee, G.M. Hawk and C.T. Dyrness. 1976. Relationships of environment to composition, structure, and diversity of forest communities of the central western Cascades of Oregon. Ecological Monographs (46): 135-156.